Dr. Abbas M. Sharaky
Dept. of Natural Resources,
Institute of African Research and Studies
The course reviews the principal types of mineral resources, their distribution and genesis, with particular emphasis on deposits of metals. The first part of the course deals with the basic principles of ore deposits and methods for deciphering their genetic evolution. Following discussion of how deposits can be classified according to commodity and formation mechanisms, the most common types of deposits will be reviewed with respect to their main features and the geological environments in which they occur. The latter part of the course will focus on the underlying reasons for the distribution of ore deposits within a plate tectonic framework, and go on to discuss the economic principles of mining and the current character of the global metal mining industry and the sequence of events from the selection of areas for potential discovery of ore deposits, prospecting and development.
You will learn about the geological processes that lead to the formation of mineral deposits in nature, and about which minerals and rocks represent important resources for society. At the end of the study period, you will be in a position to contribute to the exploitation of known mineral deposits, and to contribute to exploration for new deposits. You will also learn how exploitation of mineral deposits can take place with minimal negative consequences for the environment, and how harmful emissions from mines and mineral deposits can be stopped or limited.
This course is intended to serve a useful information resource for professional geologists and non-geologists. It should also provide students with a critical understanding of selected mineral deposits: how are they formed and distributed in space and time?, what are the main characteristics of the mineral deposits?, how can we discover new deposits?, distribution of mineral deposits in Africa, production and reserves of mineral resources in Africa.
Also, you will know the mineral distribution in Africa. You may think about the colonization history in Africa and its relation to mineral resources. Several conflicts and civil wars are mostly related to mineral resources such as in DR Congo, South Africa, Angola, Southern Sudan, Darfur, ..etc.
To be able to classify different minerals and rocks relevant to resources
To be able to understand how and why different types of mineral deposits are formed
To gain an insight into how environmental problems applicable to mineral deposits and exploitation of natural resources can be minimalised and, if possible, avoided
Gain a deep knowledge within your own area of interest.
How different minerals deposits form.
Modern techniques in mineral exploration.
Current situation of mineral resources in Africa.
To be able to identify certain minerals and rocks relevant to natural resources in hand specimens
To be able to explain how different types of mineral deposits can be found
To be able to evaluate different environmental measures applied to mineral deposits and exploitation of resources
To be able to work both independently and in collaboration with others.
To be able to explain reasons of conflicts in Africa.
To be able to understand the interest of some foreign countries in Africa.
The course aims at fostering and developing scientific curiosity around the course theme and a critical reflection of representativeness, accuracy, reliability and importance of the data and results.
A good understanding of mineralogy, geology of Africa and the basic principles of geochemistry is preferable but do not worry if you have never studied geology.
Two lectures/week with 30 hours of lectures.
Requirements and textbooks:
This course of mineral deposits requires a general background in geology. All of you had at least one course in geology. We will use several textbooks and lecture notes. They will be reserved in the library of Institute of African Research and Studies to use. There is no check out for these materials.
Two Exams …………………. …………........ 10%
Research Paper (Due Dec. 22)…………..... 10%
Attendance …………………………………… 5%
Lecture Notes in pdf:
Introduction (Lecture ppt in pdf)
Mineral deposits: Classification of mineral deposits (ppt in pdf)
Magmatic deposits I: Mafic complexes, ophiolites and massive sulfides (ppt in pdf)
Magmatic deposits II: Kimberlites, carbonatites, pegmatites and greisens (ppt in pdf)
Hydrothermal deposits (porphyry deposits) (ppt in pdf)
Hydrothermal deposits (epithermal deposits) (ppt in pdf)
Metamorphic deposits (ppt in pdf)
Sedimentary mineral deposits, residual, supergene enrichment, placer I (ppt in pdf)
Sedimentary mineral deposits, residual, supergene enrichment, placer II (ppt in pdf)
Fluid inclusions and mineral exploration (ppt in pdf)
Dec. 26 SECOND EXAM